Vincent Van Gogh

Dutch, Post-Impressionism, 1853 - 1890

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GOG-01 Hoa diên vĩ
Giá: Liên hệ


GOG-02 Hoa hướng dương
Giá: Liên hệ

GOG-03 Starry Night Over the Rhone
Giá: Liên hệ

GOG-04 Almond Blossom
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-05 Fishing Boats on the Beach at Saintes-Maries
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-06 Quán cà phê đêm
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-07 The Starry Night
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-08 A Wheatfield, with Cypresses
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-09 Hoa hướng dương
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-10 Mùa gặt
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-11 Field with Flowers near Arles
Giá: Liên hệ
 
GOG-12 Hoa hướng dương
Giá: Liên hệ

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Vincent Van Gogh (30/3/1853 - 29/7/1890) là một danh họa Hà Lan thuộc trường phái hậu ấn
 tượng (Post-Impressionism). Nhiều bức tranh của ông nằm trong số những tác phẩm nổi tiếng
 nhất, được yêu thích nhất và cũng đắt nhất trên thế giới. Van Gogh là nghệ sĩ tiên phong của
 trường phái biểu hiện và có ảnh hưởng rất lớn tới mỹ thuật hiện đại, đặc biệt là tới trường phái
 dã thú (Fauvism) và trường phái biểu hiện tại Đức.

 Thời thanh niên, Van Gogh làm việc trong một công ty buôn bán tranh, sau đó là giáo viên
 và nhà truyền giáo tại một vùng mỏ nghèo. Ông thực sự trở thành họa sĩ từ năm 1880 khi đã
27 tuổi. Thoạt đầu, Van Gogh chỉ sử dụng các gam màu tối, chỉ đến khi được tiếp xúc với trường phái ấn tượng (Impressionism) và Tân ấn tượng (Neo-Impressionism)ở Paris, ông mới bắt đầu thay đổi phong cách vẽ của mình. Trong thời gian ở Arles miền Nam nước Pháp, Van Gogh kết hợp các màu sắc tươi sáng của hai chủ nghĩa này với phong cách vẽ của mình để tạo nên các bức tranh có phong cách rất riêng. Chỉ trong 10 năm cuối đời, họa sĩ đã sáng tác hơn 2000 tác phẩm, trong đó có khoảng 900 bức họa hoàn chỉnh và 1100 bức vẽ hoặc phác thảo. Phần lớn các tác phẩm nổi tiếng nhất của Van Gogh được sáng tác vào hai năm cuối đời, thời gian ông lâm vào khủng hoảng tinh thần tới mức tự cắt bên tai trái vì tình bạn tan vỡ với họa sĩ Paul Gauguin. Sau đó Van Gogh liên tục phải chịu đựng các cơn suy nhược thần kinh và cuối cùng ông đã tự kết liễu đời mình.

Người quan trọng nhất trong cuộc đời Van Gogh là em trai ông, Theo, người đã luôn lo lắng và hỗ trợ tài chính cho Van Gogh. Tình anh em giữa Vincent và Theo đã được ghi lại qua rất nhiều lá thư họ trao đổi kể từ tháng 8 năm 1872.

Van Gogh chết trong cảnh nghèo túng và chỉ mới có một chút danh tiếng trong giới nghệ thuật châu Âu. Tuy vậy các sáng tác của ông về sau đã có ảnh hưởng sâu sắc đến các họa sĩ sau này, đặc biệt là các họa sĩ thuộc trường phái Dã thú (Fauvism)  như Henri Matisse và các họa sĩ thuộc trường phải Biểu hiện Đức thuộc nhóm Die Brücke. Chủ nghĩa Biểu hiện trừu tượng trong nghệ thuật thập niên 1950 cũng bắt nguồn từ việc phát triển các ý tưởng sáng tác của Van Gogh.

Năm 2004, trong Danh sách những người Hà Lan vĩ đại nhất trong lịch sử (De Grootste Nederlander) do đài KRO tổ chức, Vincent van Gogh được xếp thứ 10 và là nghệ sĩ có thứ hạng cao thứ 2 trong danh sách (sau họa sĩ Rembrandt xếp thứ 9)

Sau khi mất, tranh của Van Gogh rất được các bảo tàng nghệ thuật và nhà sưu tầm cá nhân ưa thích, đặc biệt là trong thập niên 1980 và 1990. Khi đó tác phẩm của Van Gogh liên tục phá kỉ lục thế giới về giá bán, có thể kể tới các bức:

Hoa hướng dương (Sunflowers, 39.7 triệu USD), Đêm đầy sao (Starry Night), Chân dung bác sĩ Gachet (Portrait of Doctor Gachet, 82.5 triệu USD), Hoa diên vĩ (Irises, 53.9 triệu USD), Quán cà phê đêm (Cafe terrace at night), Mùa gặt (The harvest), Cánh đồng lúa mì và cây trắc bá (Wheat field with Cypresses, 57 triệu USD), Chân dung tự họa (Self portrait, 71.5 triệu USD).


Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a major Post-Impressionist painter. He was a Dutch artist whose work had a far-reaching influence on 20th-century art. His output includes portraits, self portraits, landscapes, and still lifes of cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers. Van Gogh drew as a child but did not paint until his late twenties; he completed many of his best-known works during the last two years of his life. In just over a decade, he produced more than 2,100 artworks, including 860 oil paintings and more than 1,300 watercolors, drawings, sketches and prints.

Van Gogh was born to upper middle class parents and spent his early adulthood working for a firm of art dealers. He traveled between The Hague, London and Paris, after which he taught in England at Isleworth and Ramsgate. He was deeply religious as a younger man and aspired to be a pastor. From 1879 he worked as a missionary in a mining region in Belgium, where he began to sketch people from the local community. In 1885 he painted The Potato Eaters, considered his first major work. His palette then consisted mainly of somber earth tones and showed no sign of the vivid coloration that distinguished his later paintings. In March 1886, he moved to Paris and discovered the French Impressionists. Later, he moved to the south of France and was influenced by the strong sunlight he found there. His paintings grew brighter in color, and he developed the unique and highly recognizable style that became fully realized during his stay in Arles in 1888.

Van Gogh drew and painted with watercolors while at school - only a few survive and authorship is challenged on some of those that do. When he committed to art as an adult, he began at an elementary level, copying the Cours de dessin, a drawing course edited by Charles Bargue. Within two years he sought commissions. In spring 1882, his uncle, Cornelis Marinus, owner of a well-known gallery of contemporary art in Amsterdam, asked him for drawings of the Hague. Van Gogh's work did not live up to his uncle's expectations. Marinus offered a second commission, this time specifying the subject matter in detail, but was once again disappointed with the result. Nevertheless, Van Gogh persevered. He improved the lighting of his studio by installing variable shutters and experimented with a variety of drawing materials. For more than a year he worked on single figures – highly elaborated studies in "Black and White", which at the time gained him only criticism. Today, they are recognized as his first masterpieces.

Early in 1883, he began to work on multi-figure compositions, which he based on his drawings. He had some of them photographed, but when his brother remarked that they lacked liveliness and freshness, he destroyed them and turned to oil painting. By Autumn 1882, his brother had enabled him financially to turn out his first paintings, but all the money Theo could supply was soon spent. Then, in spring 1883, Van Gogh turned to renowned Hague School artists like Weissenbruch and Blommers, and received technical support from them, as well as from painters like De Bock and Van der Weele, both second generation Hague School artists. When he moved to Nuenen after the intermezzo in Drenthe he began several large-sized paintings but destroyed most of them. The Potato Eaters and its companion pieces – The Old Tower on the Nuenen cemetery and The Cottage – are the only ones to have survived. Following a visit to the Rijksmuseum, Van Gogh was aware that many of his faults were due to lack of technical experience. So in November 1885 he traveled to Antwerp and later to Paris to learn and develop his skill.

After becoming familiar with Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist techniques and theories, Van Gogh went to Arles to develop on these new possibilities. But within a short time, older ideas on art and work reappeared: ideas such as working with serial imagery on related or contrasting subject matter, which would reflect on the purposes of art. As his work progressed, he painted many Self-portraits. Already in 1884 in Nuenen he had worked on a series that was to decorate the dining room of a friend in Eindhoven. Similarly in Arles, in spring 1888 he arranged his Flowering Orchards into triptychs, began a series of figures that found its end in The Roulin Family series, and finally, when Gauguin had consented to work and live in Arles side-by-side with Van Gogh, he started to work on The Décorations for the Yellow House, which was by some accounts the most ambitious effort he ever undertook. Most of his later work is involved with elaborating on or revising its fundamental settings. In the spring of 1889, he painted another, smaller group of orchards. In an April letter to Theo, he said, "I have 6 studies of Spring, two of them large orchards. There is little time because these effects are so short-lived."

Art historian Albert Boime believes that Van Gogh – even in seemingly fantastical compositions like Starry Night – based his work in reality. The White House at Night, shows a house at twilight with a prominent star surrounded by a yellow halo in the sky. Astronomers at Southwest Texas State University in San Marcos calculated that the star is Venus, which was bright in the evening sky in June 1890 when Van Gogh is believed to have painted the picture.

Legacy

Following his first exhibitions in the late 1880s, Van Gogh's fame grew steadily among colleagues, art critics, dealers, and collectors.[198] After his death, memorial exhibitions were mounted in Brussels, Paris, The Hague, and Antwerp. In the early 20th century, there were retrospectives in Paris (1901 and 1905) and Amsterdam (1905), and important group exhibitions in Cologne (1912), New York (1913), and Berlin (1914). These had a noticeable impact on later generations of artists. By the mid 20th century, Van Gogh was seen as one of the greatest and most recognizable painters in history. In 2007, a group of Dutch historians compiled the "Canon of Dutch History" to be taught in schools, and included Van Gogh as one of the fifty topics of the canon, alongside other national icons such as Rembrandt and De Stijl.

Together with those of Pablo Picasso, Van Gogh's works are among the world's most expensive paintings ever sold, based on data from auctions and private sales. Those sold for over US$100 million (today's equivalent) include Portrait of Dr. Gachet, Portrait of Joseph Roulin, and Irises. A Wheatfield with Cypresses was sold in 1993 for US$57 million, a spectacularly high price at the time, while his Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear was sold privately in the late 1990s for an estimated US$80/$90 million.

A newly discovered painting by the Dutch artist was publicly unveiled on 10 September 2013, after it was retrieved from the attic of a Norwegian collector who misjudged the work as a fraud following its purchase in 1908. Sunset at Montmajour is a large oil landscape painting and - as of 24 September 2013 - is displayed at Amsterdam's Van Gogh Museum.

Source: Wikipedia